雅思写作备考指导

发表时间:2017-10-17 14:41作者:路韶晨来源:山西观致留学网址:http://www.sxgzlx.com

雅思写作备考指导

——高分写作技巧

目录

第一节  简介1
第二节  常用基本句式2
第三节  高分句式10

第一节  简介

图表简介:

图表分类

图表通常分为两大类。一类是数据图,包括曲线图(graph/ line chart),柱状图(bar chart/ column chart),饼状图(pie chart)和表格(table)。

另一类是示意图/流程图(diagram/flow chart)。目前在雅思考试中主要出现的是数据图

图表出题频率最多柱状图,其次曲线图,再者饼状图,表格。

图表大忌:切忌发表个人观点和看法,切忌照搬题目、切忌简单罗列数据、避免词汇重复

写作注意事项

词汇语法:词汇准确多样,不能重复 those who work in = people working in = the employee in      

句子:结构不能太简单,一句话要同时写两个对象的特征。    

逻辑:句子里,句子与句子之间,段与段之间都要使用表示对比,转折,相似的连词或副词。

时态:第一句使用一般现在时,主体部分大多用一般过去式。

二. 图表作文审题

审题包括审读题目要求或说明以及查看图表及其注解题目的文字部分一般提供了有关这个图表的最基本信息,如所涉及的背景、研究的对象、时间地点。对于图表部分,我们需要仔细考察,查看纵横轴等,找出值得描述的主要规律和特征、关键点( 最高,最低值,中间值、相似类的)、总体趋势(overall trends不规则变化(irregularities 上升,下降,持平的

第二节  常用基本句式

开头段


图表类型
动词谓语
三要素:研究的对象+时间+地点

The
chart
graph
table
diagram
shows
indicates
illustrates
describes
gives
presents
depicts
reveals

the number / amount/ quantity/ percentage/ proportion of
information about
data on
that

figures
statistics


主体段

一. 描述信息出处


According to the
According to the number shown in the
As is shown in the
As can be seen from the

pie chart
table/chart
diagram
graph/line chart
figures

+总概括句子
It can be seen from the
We learn from the
We can see from the
It is clear/apparent from the

that+总概括句子

As the

shows
indicates
illustrates
describes  that+总概括句子
presents
depicts
reveals


二.动态变化描写

1)上升/ 下降   (用变化动词)


主语
变化动词
变化程度的副词
时间段
导入数据

The number of
The figure of
The percentage of
The proportion of
上升/增加
increased
jumped
rose
grew
went up
climbed
soar
gently
suddenly
rapidly / quickly
dramatically
significantly
sharply / steeply
steadily / stably
smoothly
consistently
continually
gradually / slowly
slightly
maximally
minimally
comparatively slowly
from … to …,
between… and…,
for one month,
for a period of ,
over the next month,
during the next month,
over the period from .to
over the 25-year period
duringthe25-year period
, with
, at
( )
by
to
fromto

,falling/increasing from. to.
,making up 20%.
,accounting for 20%.
,amounting to 2000.

,which falls/increase from.to
,which is 20%.
,which makes up 20%.
,which constitutes 20%.
,which account for 20%.

或插入语

下降/减少
decreased
declined
dropped
fell
reduced
went down
slumped
sink

上下波动
fluctuated
varied
rise and fall

(注:数据为估计数据时,
需使用about, nearly, almost
approximately, over,
up to, a bit over, around 等。
数据为准确值时,可用
Precisely, exactly 等加强语气。)


2上升/ 下降   (用变化名词)


句式
变化程度的形容词
变化的名词
在哪方面变化
时间段
There was a
sudden
rapid / quick
dramatic / significant
sharp / steep
marked
consistent / continual
steady / stable
gradual / slow
small / slight
increase
jump
rise
growth

decrease
drop / fall
decline
reduction

in the number of sth
in the percentage of
in the profit of sth

from … to ….
between … and …
for one month.
for a period of one month.
during the next month
during the period fromto
during the 25-year period fromto
over the next month.
over the period from…to…
over the period between and
over the 5-year period between and.
throughout the period
in 1999= in the year 1999
in the next two decades
in around 1999
by 1999=by the year 1999
until 2004
after/before 2004

upward / downward
tendency


3上升/ 下降   (五个变通句型)

The percentage of increases sharply between and, going up from...to….

There is a gradual increase in the number of .over the period of one month.

The number/percentage shows an upward / downward trend from .to..

A sharp increase can be found in the number/percentage of , from to

The year of 1999 witnesses a steady fall in the amount of .  

4)无变化


      主语
动词保持
形容词
导入数据
时间

The number of (sth)
The percentage of
remained
maintained
steady
stable

at 30%
between (1980) and (2000).
over the period between and
over the 25-year period between and.
during the 25-year period fromto
for one month
for a period of one month.
over/during the next month.

did not change
stayed the same/ unchanged
maintain the same level
leveled out


There was
little
hardly any
no

change in the number of sth



静态数据描写

最高和最低

A was the most popular/dominant/main + n , with + 数据+时间..

= A + 动词/被动语态/serves as (is used as) the main n (+ 数据) +时间.

= The largest quantity of n + 动词/被动语态 from A + 数据+时间.

= The proportion of n in A, the highest of all, + 动词 + 数据+时间.

=A+ 动词/被动语态 in the largest quantity, +数据+时间.


主语
动词
导入数据
时间

The monthly profit
The figures
The situation
The number
The percentage
Peaked 最高点

at  20%

in December.

reached
a peak
a high point

bottomed out 最低点


reached
the bottom
a low point


 2)A比B 多/少


A
动词/被动语态
far/ much
more/ less than
slightly/marginally
B
The percentage of A
is
more/less  than
that of B.
There
are
more/less  A 
than B


3)A和B相等


比较的一方
程度副词
比较级+名词
比较的另一方

A has
The percentage of  A  is
A   动词/被动语态
almost
nearly
about
approximately
as many (employees) as
as much (space) as
as high as
B.

the same
number
proportion
amount
of  as B


2)A是B的几分之几或几倍


比较的一方
程度副词
量词
比较的另一方

A has
The percentage of  A  is
A   动词/被动语态

almost
nearly
about
approximately
just over exactly
precisely
a/one quarter of
half of
a third of
3 quarters of

the (total) number of employees.

a quarter
half
quarters
twice
three times

as many(employees)
as much

as B.


3)A比B多几倍


比较的一方
程度副词
量词
比较级+比较的另一方

A has
The percentage of  A  is
A   动词/被动语态
almost
nearly
about
approximately
just over exactly
precisely
twice
three times
four times

more (employees) than B
higher/ larger than B


导入数据

★介词短语

The consumption of fish also decline but slightly to just below 50 grams.

Lamb and chicken were eaten in the quantities of 5 grams.

The consumption of fish decline by 50 grams.

The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France.

Hydro continued to be another significant source, supplying/producing approximately 20%, at 25 units.

In 1979,beef was by far the most popular of these food, with about 225 grams per person per week.

The reminding units were produced largely from oil and nuclear power ( 20 units and 25 units respectively), with hydro contributing 5 units.

★ 括号

The remainder was produced from natural gas, hydro power (each producing 25 units) and oil (which produce only 10 units).

Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities, while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams.)

★ 分词作状语

The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France.

The greatest amount of water was consumed in the industrial sector, accounting for 70%.

The largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose, whereas hydro continued to be another significant source, supplying approximately 20%.

★ 非限制性定语从句

The units of electricity doubled, which rose from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France.

The greatest amount of water was consumed in the industrial sector, which account for 70%.

四.对象描述变换方法

Beef was the most popular of these foods.

Beef was consumed as the most popular food.

   Beef were eaten in similar quantities of 5 grams.

The consumption of beef fell dramatically to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams respectively.

American used coal as the main electricity source for 25%.

Coal was used as the most popular source.

The largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose.

Water used in the industrial sector also increased, but the consumption was minimal until 1999.

Nearly 80% students under 26 years old study for their career reason.

There are only 10% of students studying out of interest.

Those who study for career purpose is 4%.

90% of those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men.

Men holding postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered than females.

Men with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered than females.

Britain has spent most heavily on the ranged of goods.

Britains spending is considerable higher than that of other country.

Germany is the lowest spender.

五.开头段改写

(7.1) The table below gives/shows information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries in 2002.

= The table shows the expenditure on the consumption of three items in 5 nations in 2002, namely, Turkey, Italy, London, New York and Tokyo.

(7.2) The graph below shows the consumption of fish and some different kinds of meet in a European country between 1997 and 2004.

= The line chart illustrates the changes in the amount of fish, beef, lamb and chicken consumed in a particular Europe country over the 15-year period from 1997 to 2004.

= The graph illustrates how the consumption of fish, beef, lamb and chicken changed in a particular Europe country over the 15-year period from 1997 to 2004.

(7.3) The chart shows information about changes in average house prices in five different cities between 1990   and 2002 compared with the average house prices in 1989.

= The charts shows how the average prices in five different cities changed during the period between 1990 and 2002 in comparison to the average house prices in 1989.

(6.1) The graph and table gives information about water use worldwide and water consumption tin two different countries.

= The graph shows how the amount of water used worldwide changed between 1990 and 2000 and the table compares the differences in agricultural consumption in two countries.  

(3.3) The chart below shows the levels of participation in education and science in developing and industrial countries in 1980 and 1990.

= The data compares the differences between developing and industrial countries participation in education and science.

第三节  高分句式

一. 同时写两个对象的特征或变化

1)平铺直叙法:

简单句(respectively, compared with);并列句(however, on the contrary, on the other hand);

复合句(while, whereas)

★ 简单句(respectively, compared with, outnumber=overtake)

The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France.

The units of electricity in USA and in Franc rose double from 100 to 170 and from 90 to 180 respectively.

A double rise could be seen/found in the units of electricity in USA and in Franc from 100 to 170 and from 90 to 180 respectively.

There was a double rise in the units of electricity in USA and in Franc from 100 to 170 and from 90 to 180 respectively.

The consumption of beef and lamb fell dramatically to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams   respectively.

= There was a dramatic fall in the consumption of beef and lamb to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams respectively.

= A dramatic fall can be found/seen/noticed in the consumption of beef and lamb to approximately 100 grams and 55 grams respectively.

The proportion of people aged stood at only 5% in Japan, approximately 7% in Sweden and 9% in USA.

The length of time people spend at school in industrialized countries was much greater at 8.5 years in 1980, compared to 2.5 years in developing countries.

10% of those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men, compared with 80% of women.

Men who held a skilled vocational diploma was 10%, compared with 80% of women.

There are 80% of men holding a skilled vocational diploma in comparison with 80% of women.

70% of over 49 years old study for interest in comparison to 18% studying for career reasons.

Male with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered/overtook female (70% and 30% respectively).

★并列句(however, on the contrary, on the other hand)

There was a sharp increase in the consumption of beef. On the other handthe consumption of chicken, , showed an upward trend.

A remarkable drop can be found in the price in New York.In/By contrast, the price increased in the rest of cities.

Water used in the industrial sector also increased, however/but the consumption was minimal until 1999.

However, the figures grew to about 15% in around 1990, before rising to almost 5% again in 2000.

The largest quantity fuel was generated from hydro. On the contrary, coal and oil together produced only 50 units.

★ 复合句(while, whereas)

In Italy, they got 90%, while/whereas in Japan, they are below 50%.

Italy spends more on personal stereo than France, while spending the same on toys between the two.

The quantities of lamb and chicken were similar, while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams).

Industrial use grew steadily to just over 5%, while domestic use rose more slowly to only 2%, both far below the levels of consumption by agriculture.

The largest quantity of water was used for agricultural purpose, whereas hydro continued to be another significant source, supplying approximately 20%.

2) 加减法 比较级、平级

France spends much more on CDs and film but less on tennis than Italy does.

 =Frances spending is slightly more on CDs and film but less on tennis than that of Italy.

Italys spending on personal stereo is only marginally greater than that of France, while spending on toys is equal between the two.

Far More males hold postgraduate diplomas than females (70% and 30% respectively).

 =Males who hold postgraduate diplomas are far more than females do (70% and 30% respectively).

 =There are more males holding postgraduate diplomas than females (70% and 30% respectively).

More men than woman hold qualifications at the lower and higher levels of education, while more             women reach undergraduate diploma level than men.

 =Men holding qualifications at the lower and higher levels of education are marginally more than women, while women reaching undergraduate diploma level are more than men.

France used coal as a source for only 25 units of electricity in 1980, which was matched by natural gas.

= France used the same amount of coal and natural gas in 1980, with 25 units of electricity.

= In 1980, Coal and natural gas are used in the same quantities of 25 units of electricity in France,

 = The quantities of coal and natural gas consumed in France are equal to each other, with 25 units of electricity.

Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities ( about 60 grams), while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams).

= The quantities of lamb and chicken were similar, while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams).

Italys spending on personal stereo is only marginally greater than that of France, while spending on toys is equal between the two.

The price increased in the rest of cities.

The remainder/the reminding sources was produced from nature gas, hydro water and oil.

Nearly the same number of over 49 years old study for career and interest reasons.

The percentage are nearly similar, which are all approximately 60%.

Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities, while much less fish was consumed (just over 50grams.)

France used coal as a source for only 25 units of electricity in 1980, which was matched by natural gas.

The proportion is similar in 3 countries.

3) 倍数法   倍数+平级

The units of electricity doubled, rising from 100 to 170 in USA and from 90 to 180 in France.

Lamb was consumed twice as much as beef.

The number of women who hold the undergraduate diploma is three times as much as that of man.

There are twice as many women who hold the undergraduate diploma as men.

二.同时写一个对象的两种变化  before /  after  /  followed by

The number of cases of the X disease remained steady, followed by a slight decrease before the number rose dramatically between 1990 and 1995.

The number of cases of the X disease remained steady, followed by a slight decrease before rising dramatically between 1990 and 1995.

The number of cases of the disease reached a peak in 1993, fluctuating slightly until the 1996 before it fell sharply over the following years.

There was a slight increase up to 30 dollars in the price after a fall to 10 dollars.

There was a slight increase up to 30 dollars in the price after it fell to 10 dollars.

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